Waste to Energy in the Age of the Circular Economy

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This compendium to the Waste to Energy in the Age of the Circular Economy Handbook outlines waste-to-energy project implementations with background, technology, financing, operations, and lessons learned. These projects start with a large municipal solid waste plant reducing unsorted waste, and progress through smaller distributed solutions that reduce components of the waste or process the waste to capture the energy contained.  Distributed business models to recycle and upcycle waste components using intermediate fuel technologies - including refuse derived fuels, biogas, biomethane, and syngas - are presented.  The use of distributed gasification and pyrolysis is also demonstrated at the distributed scale.  These upcycling activities reduce the required capacity for end-of-life facilities.