This is an engineering study of affordable options for coastal protection. It builds on existing knowledge to develop innovative solutions to protect coastlines in such a way that will maximise the use of local materials and labour while at the same time, minimise the need for imported goods and equipment. This report not only catalogues the existing approaches to shoreline protection in the Pacific region, based on technical, social and environmental criteria, it also provides an evaluation of each. Laboratory simulations were conducted to test some of the recommendations of the review, with the results to be published in a separate report. Following the laboratory studies, trials will be developed in the Pacific islands to test particular designs in real conditions.