Tonkin + Taylor, in association with the University of New South Wales Water Research Laboratory (WRL), was engaged by the Pacific Region Infrastructure Facility (PRIF) to undertake an engineering study of affordable options for coastal protection. The objective of this desktop review is to build on existing knowledge in an effort to develop innovative solutions to protect coastlines in such a way that will maximise the use of local materials and labour while, at the same time, minimising the need for imported goods and equipment. This report not only catalogues the existing approaches to shoreline protection in the Pacific region, based on technical, social and environmental criteria; it also provides an evaluation of each. Laboratory simulations are being conducted to test some of the recommendations of the review, with the results to be published in a separate report. Following the laboratory studies, trials will be developed in Pacific islands to test particular designs in real conditions.